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Classroom Management Techniques and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics in Secondary

Classroom Management Techniques and Students’ Academic Performance in Economics in Secondary Schools

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The study was carried out to investigate classroom management techniques and students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Abak local government area. The population of the study comprises of four thousand six hundred and fifty four (4,654) students offering Economics in the ten (10) public secondary schools. Out of which five (5) schools were random selected to form the sample size of two hundred (200) students.

The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated and tested using independent t-test. The main instrument for data collection was economics achievement test. The findings from the study show that teachers’ classroom management techniques influence the academic performance of students in economics. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that teachers should adopt better classroom management technique which enhances better academic performance.




1.1 Background to the Study

It is universally acceptable that classroom management is essential for the achievement or the targeted goal. Adams (2009) observed that most classrooms contain what they styled an “Action Zone”, an area of the classroom where the instructor focuses most of his attention and carries on a great deal of his interactions. In most learning environments, this action zone included the students who were seated in the front row and the middle aisle directly facing the instructing desk. These arrangements are capable of interfering within routine classroom activities. For a classroom to be properly managed, the teacher must use the necessary classroom management techniques in order to maintain the activities of the classroom.

However, proper understanding of the term classroom management, it is pertinent to define the term management and differentiate it from administration. Management and administration had often times been used interchangeably to mean the same thing. Hence, management is the process of mobilizing, arranging, directing, guiding resources in an organization to realize the establishment goals. (Ekanem, 2006), while administration refers to the activities performed by persons occupying high levels of government. To put these two concepts together, the level of explaining classroom management will be so meaningful.

Nkang (2006) reported that for a teacher to manage his classroom effectively, he must co-operate with other teachers in the school because co operation is the major factor used in the process of classroom management. It also involves working together with people towards the realization of a set of goal. In the classroom situation, it involves working with the head-teacher, other teachers and even students to achieve learning, the lad down rules and regulations as to the conduct of the classroom have to be followed when a teacher is in doubt he has to consult the head teacher who is suppose to be a source of inspiration to the class teacher, when the teacher is not co operating with the students, student may regard the teacher as a tyrant.

Emmer and Stough (2001) observes that the ability of teachers to organize classrooms and manage the behavior of their students is critical to achieving positive educational outcomes. A good classroom environment makes good instruction possible. In addition, Fuller (2016) noted that although there are other moderating factors associated with students’ classroom behavior and student’s academic performance; teacher qualification, experience of the teacher, discipline, motivation, instructional methods, and evaluation are the key factors that determine the level of academic performance of the students.

According to Udoukpong (2008), the extent through which the teacher manage his or her classroom can attracts students to have much academic performance in Economics in senior secondary schools need teachers who have the technical know how to manage the classroom effectively.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Education is supposed to equip the individuals with the knowledge, techniques, aptitudes, values and attitudes to enable students become good, citizens  live a functional life and self-reliance in our modern society. This perhaps, informed, the Federal Government of Nigeria in her National policy on Education to adopt Education as an instrument par excellence for effecting National Development (FRN, 2004).

Unfortunately, over the years the poor academic performance of students in public examinations  have been a contentious issue to well- meaning Nigerians there are lot of factors ranging from poor classroom management by the teachers to students interest in learning. This was because of the fact that, the researcher intended to conduct her research in this area to know the necessary techniques to be adopted in the effective management off the classroom.

 1.3 Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study was to examine classroom management techniques and students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary school Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Assess the influence of class supervision as a classroom management skill on student academic performance in Economics.
  2. Investigate the influence of class control on students’ academic performance in Economics.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study is significant because of the following reasons. The study will show or reveal the impact of teachers’ classroom management techniques on the students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools.

It is hopeful that the research will contribute greatly in techniques selection in the management of the classroom when teaching Economics.

This research will seek avenue to update information of the past researchers and add for future development. Also it is meant for government, policy makers, counselors and students including academic board.

The secondary school is one of the foundations of education as the research would be properly carried out; the following bodies in education will find it useful:

(a)    Teachers who are teaching Economics in secondary schools

(b)    Students who are on teaching practice

(c)    Teachers who are involved in educational guidance and counseling.

(d.)   Ministry of education

(e.)   The curriculum planners.

1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions are put forward in the study:

(1.)   To what extent does class supervision influence students’ academic performance in Economics?

(2.)   To what extent does class control influence students’ academic performance in Economics?

1.6. Research hypotheses

The following research hypotheses was formulated to guide the study

  1. There is no significant influence of class supervision on students’ academic performance
  2. There is no significant influence of class control on students’ academic performances in Economics.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

This study focused on the teacher classroom management techniques and students’ academic performance in Economics in selected secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area, because of the following factors:

  1. Severe financial constraints.
  2. Limited time schedule coupled with other academic work in school
  3. The cost of transportation in going to the selected schools to administer the instrument to the selected respondents.

1.8   Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. And it was also delimited to classroom supervision and classroom control as the variables used in the study.

1.9   Definition of Terms

To show a clear perception of the study, the following terms are clearly defined as it related to the study:

Teachers: According to UNESCO, (1976) teachers are referred to as all those persons in schools who are responsible for providing students or pupils with education directed to the all round development of human personality and the moral values.

Classroom Management: Refers to as the smooth and effective handling of the class through the process of controlling, planning, and mobilizing of various resources (Nkang, 2008).

Techniques: These are the techniques or abilities to perform or do something in a good way.

Students: It is conceptualized as the group of learners who are studying at the school, like secondary schools, universities and colleges

Academic performance: this is a term often used in educational institution to describe the extent of achievement of educational objectives.

Economics: this is a social science which studies human behaviours in relation to ends and scares mean which have alternative uses.

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