The Impact of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance

The Impact of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance
The Impact of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance

The Impact of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate teachers’ motivational strategies and students’ academic performance in Government in Essien Udim Local Government Area. To realize the objectives of the study, two research questions were stated and two null hypotheses were formulated in line with the research questions.

The teachers’ questionnaire was the instrument for data collection, the instrument was validated by the supervisor. Forty (40) Government teachers selected from four (4) selected public secondary schools was the sample size. Data collected were analyzed using (PPMC) at 0.05 level of significance, all the two hypotheses were rejected. Findings revealed that;

  • There is a significant relationship between teachers’ praise strategies and students’ academic performance in Government in Essien Udim Local Government Area.
  • There is a significant relationship between teachers’ reward to students and students’ academic performance in Government in Essien Udim Local Government Area

The Impact of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

According to Pintrich and Schunk (2002), motivation is the process whereby goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained. At all school levels, students’ needs guidance and counseling, motivation and supervision to enhance their academic performance and indeed to compete with their peers. Teachers’ motivational strategies have a strong influence on the educational attainment of students.  Motivation has strong effect on educational attainment of the students and helps shape their further performance.

According to Higbe (1996) motivation plays a very important role in the process of learning. He explains that there are two types of motivation; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is one where students participate in different activity only to receive a reward or to avoid punishment. These include gifts that one receives after obtaining good grades. Motivation to learn refers to the value and benefits of academic task to the learner regardless of whether or not the task were intrinsically interesting.

Motivation involves a constellation of beliefs, perceptions, values, interests, and actions that are all closely related. As a result, various approaches to motivation can focus on cognitive behaviors. (such as monitoring and strategy use). Non cognitive aspects (such as perceptions, beliefs and attitudes) or both.  Gottfried (1990) defines academic motivation as enjoyment of school learning characterized by a mastery orientation; curiosity; persistence task-endogeny, and the learning of challenging, difficult, and novel tasks.

On the other hand, Tuner (1995) considers motivation to be synonymous with cognitive engagement, which he defined as uses of high-level self regulated learning strategies, such as paying attention, connection, planning and monitoring. The motion of intrinsic motivation is closely related to intrinsic value.

Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure, and is usually contrasted with extrinsic motivation, which is manipulated by re-enforcement contingencies (Guay, 2010). Typically, manipulation of extrinsic motivation is effected by the provision of rewards, which can be either tangible like money, grades, and privileges or intangible such as praise.

The Impact of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance

However, extrinsic motivation can come about by other means, example self-determination theory distinguishes several different types of regulatory corresponds to the lowest level of self-determination, where behaviour is motivated by a desire for reward or punishment avoidance. Educators typically consider intrinsic motivation to be more desirable than extrinsic motivation, and some research suggest that the learning outcomes of intrinsic motivation are better than those obtained under extrinsic motivation (Ryan, Conlell, Plant, 1990).

According to Goldbery, Gallimore, Reese Garnier (2001), students with intrinsic motivation in academic are better than those with extrinsic motivation. Students with positive academic motivation believes that they can be successful if they try hard work in order to master the material, and are motivated to improve their performance rather than just do better than other students.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem:

Education in Nigeria is considered as a basic need and a basic right. However, the level of attainment of education is measured by the performance of students in examination. There has been a decline in performance in the terminal &   external examination in recent years (Nelson, 2013). As a result of this, government has implemented many strategies concerning the improvement of learning which include free primary education, seminars and training for the teachers and head teachers, supply of text books and learning materials (Gok, 2005).

Despite all these efforts by the government, the level of academic performance is still low in most secondary schools. Little attention is paid on motivation, as a strategy to improve learning and the academic performance of students. Students’ motivation for learning is generally regarded as one of the most critical element in which we can improve the performance of the students and put the students in the way of better learning (Mitchell, 1992).

Several studies have been conducted on the influence of motivation on academic performance (Job, 2013). However, there is little evidence or focus on the influence of teachers motivational strategies on academic performance of students.

The Impact of Teachers’ Motivational Strategies and Students’ Academic Performance

1.3 Purpose Of The Study:

The main purpose of the study was to investigate teachers’ motivational strategies and students’ academic performance in government in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

Specifically, the research seeks to investigate;

  • Teachers’ praise strategies and students’ academic performance in Government in Essien Udim Local Government Area.
  • Teachers’ reward to students and students’ academic performance in Government in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Question:

The study provides answers to the following question:

  • To what extent does teachers’ praise strategies influence students’ academic performance?
  • To what extent does teachers’ reward to students influence, students’ academic performance in Essien Udim Local Government Area?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

(i)  There is no significant relationship between teachers’ praise strategies and students’ academic performance in Government in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

(ii) There is no significant relationship between teachers’ reward to students and academic performance in Government in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

1.6 Significance of The Study

The study would be of immense benefit to the following individuals: Practicing Teachers, School Administrators, Ministry of Education and Curriculum Planners.

The study will help the practicing teachers to know the importance of motivating students. It will also help school administrators to strongly emphasize on teachers to motivate their students. The study will enable Ministry Education and Curriculum Planners to see the need of including some motivational strategies in their curriculum planning, thereby making the curriculum implementators (teachers) to take it as responsibility to motivate students. It will also be of interest to researchers in the field in the area of literature review and study materials.

1.7 Delimitation of the Study:

The study was conducted to investigate the influence of teachers’ motivational strategies and students’ academic performance in Government in Essien Udim Local Government Area within the period.

1.8 Limitation of the Study:

The study on teachers’ motivational strategies and students’ academic performance in Government was constraint by many factors such as funds, this affected the researcher as he could not have enough money to cover a wider area. More so, time factor also influence the research to carry out this work effectively because period given for the completion of the study could hardly be enough for the wider more indepth research into the problem on ground.

1.9 Definition Of Terms

  • Teacher: This person who help others to acquire knowledge, competences or values.
  • Student: A student is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.
  • Academic Performance: This refers to how well or bad a student does in school works.
  • Praise: The expression of approval or admiration for someone or something that is worth doing.
  • Reward: It is something given in return for a good thing done, a service rendered, or some merit earned.
  • Government: Government is a subject of study in both tertiary institution and secondary schools.

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