Micro Economics Foundation Tools that Can be Used to Stabilize the Degree Programme in Akwa Ibom State College of Education

Micro Economics Foundation Tools that Can be Used to Stabilize the Degree Programme in Akwa Ibom State College of Education
Micro Economics Foundation Tools that Can be Used to Stabilize the Degree Programme in Akwa Ibom State College of Education

Micro Economics Foundation Tools that Can be Used to Stabilize the Degree Programme in Akwa Ibom State College of Education

Abstract

This work seeks to discuss the tools which a micro economist can use to stabilized the degree  programme in Akwa Ibom state college of education .In microeconomics, similar economic agents are aggregated to sectors and different goods are aggregated to index numbers like Gross Domestic Product. The reason for this is that macroeconomics deals with problems different from those of microeconomics.

Firstly, economic growth is defined as an increase in real Gross Domestic Product over time. As a prerequisite for economic growth, an increase in an economy’s productive capacity is identified. Any growth in productive capacity requires investments in the productive stocks available. In neoclassical growth theory, the feasibility of unbounded growth is postulated. Secondly, the various purposes of national accounting are outlined. Based on the United Nations ‘System of National Accounts (SNA), real Gross Domestic Product as a central flow concept of national accounting is defined. The procedure used in the SNA to account for the stock of national wealth is sketched.

 

INTRODUCTION

The overall goal of Nigerian tertiary education is the production of community of Nigerians that are highly skilled and who will be well prepared for the world of Work, Sustainable national development and global competitiveness in terms of expertise. However, deep concern has been expressed over the years about the adequacy of the institution of higher learning in the preparation of graduates for the world of work and for global competitiveness.

In Nigeria, the demand for popular education is so high because education is not only an investment in human capital, but also a pre-requisite as well as a correlate for economic development (Adeyemo 2000), the belief that education is an engine of growth rests on the quantity and quality of education in any country. The National policy on Education (2004) explicitly states that education is a government affair in which free education is to be provided by the government at all levels when and practicable. The public sector is the major provider and financier of education in Nigeria since it took over most of the schools in the country from primary to tertiary level in the mid-70s. Thus, education has remained one of the most challenging of the seven – point Agenda enunciated by the Late Umaru Yar’Adua administration on assumption of office in 2007.

The administration met an education sector that was in comatose. In spite of the reforms, at best half-hearted, which were carried out by the immediate past government, there was really nothing on ground to inspire confidence in that very vital segment of our national economy (Nwosu, 2009). The universities and other tertiary institutions were in a state of advanced decay with most of the teaching staff leaving the country in droves in search of greener pastures abroad.

Apart from the impact of inadequate funding on the quality of the teaching and learning process in our institute of higher education, students support is now inadequate. The number of students from poor and disadvantaged background attending our higher institutions has become insignificant. The funding of higher education has been regressive over the years. It was therefore not surprising that the late Yar’ Adua’s administration had to be confronted by labour unions in the education sector with long lists of demands on what should be done to uplift the sector.

The unions, one after the other had to embark on debilitating strike actions to press home their points. The ensuing face-off-between the Federal Government and Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) resulted into the shutting of the universities for close to four months. Furthermore, Imhabekhai & Tonwe, (2001) also highlighted that currently, universities education at present is underfunded, inadequate funding put the university management under stress and strains hence they are incapacitated in providing essential services. This has led to rampant crises in the system resulting in strikes by academic and non-academic staff, dearth of equipment and facilities, indiscipline among staff and students, upsurge in the activities of secret cults among others.

Higher education relates to all forms of post-secondary education such as the Universities, Polytechnics, Colleges of Education, Monotechnics and Professional schools (Abdu 2003). In the quest for development, developing countries have acknowledged that investment in (and) adequate funding of higher education are viable, conditions that facilitate change since the value of education hinges on teaching, learning, research and the production of qualified personnel which are needed for national development (UNESCO, 2002).

MICRO ECONOMICS FOUNDATION TOOLS THAT CAN BE USED TO STABILIZE THE DEGREE PROGRAMME IN AKWA IBOM STATE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, AFAHA NSIT

 Strategic Planning:

Also, as micro economics students, it is advice that strategic planning is a detailed road map which enables an institution to efficiently and effectively manage its available resources in order to achieve its stated goals and objectives. It is reasonable, therefore, to assert truism to assert that Akwa Ibom State College of Education, Afaha Nsit without strategic planning would find it difficult to achieve stated goals and objectives in regards to her Degree Programme. Effective implementation of strategic plan would in no small measure improve the internal efficiency and invariably the effectiveness of the institution.

Strategic planning is a process through which an examination of the external and internal factors of an organization results in a set of mission, purpose, objectives, policies, plans and programmes for implementation and strategies to achieve them (Higgins,1993).

Hunt (1998) elucidated that strategic planning provides a mechanism for enhancing communication between various units of an organization on its strengths and weaknesses in the pursuit of a common set of objectives. This would enhance the organization’s ability to prevent problems. In fact, Fehnel (2000) aptly noted that strategic planning is a systematic process in which an organization assesses its basic reason for being (that is, its purpose or mission), what its strengths and weaknesses are, and what opportunities and threats it might face in the immediate and foreseeable future.

The organization then uses this assessment to decide whether or not to make changes in what it does, how it does it, and with whom it interacts in order to fulfill its purpose. Yepwi (2007) concluded that strategic planning is a comprehensive statement of an organization’s mission, objectives and strategies, adding that it is a detailed roadmap that an organization intends to follow in conducting its activities.

Strategic planning is an exercise of foresight. It is a continuous rolling process of both planning and implementation of plans. It involves reviewing the institution’s mission and setting quantified targets in the context of the internal and external environment of the institution. It is also a collective exercise as all stakeholders should be involved in the process for it to succeed. As a medium to long term form of planning, it generally spans a period of three to five years (NUC, 2003). There is no gain saying the fact that strategic planning remains a veritable tool through which an institution can use to arrive at a desired destination within a short period of time based on analysis of both internal and external factors.

Micro Economics Foundation Tools that Can be Used to Stabilize the Degree Programme in Akwa Ibom State College of Education

  • Efficiency:

Efficiency   as a concept, has its origin in economics. It is the optimal relation between inputs and outputs. The internally efficient educational cycle/system is one which turns out graduates without wasting any student-year or without dropouts or repeaters. The system may be externally quite inefficient if the graduate turned out is not what the society, economy or higher level of education wants (Ayo, 1995).

According to Padmanghan (2001), internal efficiency refers to the number of students who pass from one grade to the other and complete that cycle within the stipulated period of time. It shows the relationship between input and output at a given educational level. Gupta (2001) noted that the question of internal efficiency is ultimately linked to the issue of resources allocation and utilization.

The indicators of internal efficiency used by Abdulkareem (1989); Durosaro (1991); Owolabi and Fabunmi (1999); and Afolabi (2006) are wastage rate and graduation rate. Wastage rate is caused by unsuccessful school leavers, who left school system before the completion of the course. Wastage may occur between grade level, among those students who repeated the grade and those who dropped out of the system.

Wastage rate could be crude-cohort wastage rate or refined-cohort wastage rate. Crude-cohort wastage rate is the percentage of repeaters and drop-outs from the first year to the final year of academic sessions of a given cohort of students, while refined cohort wastage rate is the percentage of those who passed out or the graduates to the enrolment of the cohort. This is based on the basic fact that not all the students that reached the final year took the final year examination or passed.

Graduation rate refers to the percentage of the students that finally leave the system on completion of the course to the total number that enrolled in the final grade of the level. This is very vital to the work of educational planners because it enables them to compute the input-output ratio in determining the efficacy of the system. Owolabi (2000), in his study, submitted that it was unrealistic to compare the examination results of schools in terms of successful completion of a particular cycle, without at the same time considering the students inputs, and the incidence of drop-outs and the repetition in the institution, which is likely to have a great influence on their performance at their final year. Therefore, the number of students exposed to the available resources will count in their mastery of the content of what is being thought in the lecture room.

Institution with Degree programmes are expected to meet the manpower needs of the society as the products can only be useful by deploying themselves or being employed in the various sectors of the economy. It is, therefore, desirable that the general need for skills and the needs of the labour market be continuously scanned and tracked with a view to making academic curricula respond adequately to them (Chan, 1993). Strategic planning serves as multi-purpose, multi-dimensional and nebulous plan in improving and achieving internal efficiency in such complex organization as the universities. Strategic plan implementation would be of great value in the university in ensuring that there is effective mobilization of the available human and non-human resources to achieve the institution’s goals.

  • Human Relations Skill

Human relations skill is the ability of the educational manager to create a harmonious working relationship. The human relations skill is the ability of a manager to understand, communicate, work and interact harmoniously with the people. Human relations skill is an important skill a school administrator should possess because it enables the administrator to understand himself and others as well as helps him to understand communication process. This skill is quite essential for management of human resources in higher institutions. The administrator’s lack of human relations skill or the failure to use this skill could result in poor interpersonal relationship that can give rise to frequent conflicts.

Micro Economics Foundation Tools that Can be Used to Stabilize the Degree Programme in Akwa Ibom State College of Education

  • Conceptual Skill

This skill deals with the ability of the resource manager to think in terms of model framework and broad relationship such as long-range plans for provision and utilization of educational resources. It involves the educational manger working with ideas. The use of conceptual skill helps the educational manager to relate events or activities of resource management and trends in the environment to the school organization.

  • Technical Skill

Technical skill is the ability to use specific knowledge, expertise, procedure or technique in performing a job. School administrators and teachers need technical skills to be able to accomplish the mechanics of their job. The acquisition of technical skill enables the institutional administrator to effectively manage and utilize the available scarce resources for achievement of pre-determined goals. Much of the work of a school administrator requires the application of technical skill.

He requires some basic technical skills in school financial accounting, budget preparation, school facilities maintenance and operation procedures and service activities to be able to lead his workers. Much respect from workers is derived from the managers technical competence. Without this skill the managers ability to lead and manage resources can be greatly hampered. This type of skill can be acquired through the college or the affiliated university (University of Uyo) courses and workshops or through experience on the job

  • Decision-making Skill

This skill involves the ability of a school administrator to differentiate among types of decision, determine the amount and type of data or information required to take decisions relating to resource management in higher institutions. It also involves the capacity of the administrator to determine the nature and category of people who should take part in decision making for a particular resource management problem. This skill helps the manager to establish priorities for action and to anticipate both intended and unintended consequences of decision taken.

  • Facility Management And Administration

While the planning, design, and construction of the school may take two to three years, the management of it will last the entire life cycle of the facility. At the beginning of the twenty- first century, the mean age of a school building in the United States as forty-two years, with 28 percent of school buildings built before 1950. Many of the building materials, furnishings, and equipment will not last half that long and will require constant upkeep, maintenance, and inevitable replacement to defer building obsolescence.

The costs of managing school facilities have historically received much less attention than facility planning. The percentage of the operating budget for the maintenance and management of school facilities has steadily decreased, creating a capital renewal crisis as a result of years of deferred maintenance at all levels of education.

Best practice requires that a comprehensive facility maintenance program be established and monitored by the school district. The maintenance program often includes several distinct programs, including deferred, preventive, repair/upkeep, and emergency maintenance.

Responsibility for facility management is divided between the district office and the school site, with the principal being the primary administrator responsible for the day-to-day operation of the school, including custodial, food, and transportation services. Custodians are typically hired by the school district but managed by the principal. Custodial staff is generally responsible for cleaning the building; monitoring the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems; and providing general maintenance of both building and grounds. District staff is responsible for long-term maintenance programs and the procurement of outsourced services for specialized maintenance projects.

Several environmental quality issues have emerged over the past few decades, such as classroom acoustics, indoor air quality, water quality, energy conservation, and abatement of asbestos, radon, and other hazardous materials. Many of these issues require the services of facility consultants hired through the district. Other issues for the building- level administrator include safety and security, vandalism and threats, and acts of violence and terrorism. All of these functions must be conducted within a constantly changing set of government mandates, such as energy deregulation, accessibility guidelines, codes, and other regulations and guidelines at the state and federal levels.

  • Lucrative Environment For Effective Teaching

Many communities recognize that in addition to school facilities being cost effective, they should be more learner- centered, developmentally and age appropriate, safe, comfortable, accessible, flexible, diverse, and equitable. By location of new facilities in residential neighborhoods and partnering with other community-based organizations, schools are becoming true community centers.

In addition, schools are taking advantage of educational resources in the community, as well as partnering with museums, zoos, libraries, and other public institutions and local businesses. Based on mounting evidence that smaller schools lead to improved social climate as well as better achievement, school leaders have begun to create smaller schools or have created schools within schools.

The design of safe schools increasingly recognizes the desirability of providing natural, unobtrusive surveillance mechanisms, rather than installing checkpoints and security guards. Smaller scaled school buildings allow for both natural surveillance and territorial ownership, where students and teachers are on familiar terms, thereby decreasing the possibility that any one student is overlooked.

The self-contained classroom can no longer provide the variety of learning settings necessary to successfully support project-based, real-world authentic learning. Research indicates that smaller class size is a factor contributing to improved achievement. Learning settings are being designed to support individualized, self-directed learning and small informal group learning, in addition to traditional large-group instruction. Rather than lining up classrooms along a long corridor, instructional areas are being organized around central cores of shared instructional support.

A trend in the provision of professional space for teachers has emerged as well. Teacher office space, including desk and storage, phone/fax, and information technologies, is seen as essential to the development of teachers as professionals.

Information technology is precipitating a variety of changes in the organizational and physical form of schools. With respect to instructional processes, technology is facilitating the movement toward project-based, self-directed learning and individualized instruction.

As learning becomes increasingly virtual, web-based, and wireless, it still must physically take place somewhere. As information technology is becoming ubiquitous, more schools are decentralizing technology throughout the school building and across the community.

The trend toward smart buildings, or buildings that are designed and constructed to integrate the technologies of instruction, telecommunications, and building systems, will have increased responsiveness to occupant needs as well as the educational process.

CONCLUSION

Society depends on institutions of learning to produce well adjusted individuals who can fit properly into the environments. The education sector, like the economic sector, needs the use of human, material and financial resources to function. Universities, as the highest educational institutions, are statutorily charged with the responsibility of producing high level manpower/human capital.

Learning at the university level could be described as effective if it results in bringing about the expected transformation in the attitudes, skills and knowledge of the recipients/students over a period of time (Babalola, 2008). In fact, effective learning, especially at that level should result in producing graduates who are adequately informed, technically equipped and morally prepared to become parents, good citizens and selfless leaders.

 

References

Afolabi, S. O. (2016). Statistical tools and models for educational planners. Ilorin:

Integrity Publications.

Ayo, A. (1995). Educational planning statistics and models. Ibadan: Keye-Yek Printing Production.

Babalola, J. B. (2008). Curriculum development for effective learning in higher education during knowledge and digital revolutions: The Nigerian experience. Ibadan: Awemark.

Chan, S. (1993). Changing roles of institutional research in strategic management. Research in Higher Education, 34(5), 11-14.

Owoeye, J. S. (2004). An Overview of Distance Education in the University of Ibadan, in Afemikhe O. A. & Adewale, J. G. (eds), Issues in Educatinal Measurement and Evaluation in Nigeria, Ibadan: ERSG. UNESCO (2002). Open and Distance Learning: Trends, Policy and Strategy. Paris: UNESCO.

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