Motivational Techniques and the Teaching of Biology among Secondary Schools

Motivational Techniques and the Teaching of Biology among Secondary Schools
Motivational Techniques and the Teaching of Biology among Secondary Schools

Motivational Techniques and the Teaching of Biology among Secondary Schools

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The purpose of this study was to examine the motivational techniques and the teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Itu L.G.A. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was all the 24 Biology teachers in the study area. All the twenty four (24) Biology teachers in the study area formed the sample for the study.

The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, while the data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The result showed that motivational techniques such as regular promotion of teachers, prompt payment of teachers’ salaries, and provision of in-service training to teachers influence the teaching of Biology positively. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that teachers’ salaries should be paid as and when due in order to motivate them to carry out their responsibilities effectively.




1.1 Background to the Study

Teachers are those responsible for the academic attainment of the bank managers, oil miners, judges, chief accountant, lawyers, senators, governors, even the president. But the teachers appear to be looked down upon by other professions which they have helped develop. Teachers in Nigeria have been found to be not well financially remunerated and they are looked down upon because of delay in payment of salaries and allowances, thereby having a loss of sense of belonging; a situation which has resulted in the low esteem and status of the teachers and the teaching profession in the society (Osunde and Omoruyi 2005).

This is bound to affect the psyche of the teacher, his desire to put in the best into the profession and fact their productivity. The above proves that the teacher may suffer some setbacks in attaining desired heights in life and giving their household the much needed provisions for upkeep. The teachers have needs and goals to attain. The means towards achieving their needs gives them the driving force to pursue the cause. This driving force which can come either from outside or inside an individual and can cause him to persevere in a matter is called motivation.

According to Dweck (2014), the relevance of motivation and teachers job performance is very crucial to the long term growth of any educational system around the world. Teachers motivation are probably ranked alongside professional knowledge and skills, competencies, educational resources and strategies as the veritable determinants of educational success and performance (Dweck 2014).

In other words, needs, satisfaction and motivation to work are very essential in the lives of teachers because they form the fundamental reason for engagement in any meaningful activity. This means that a teacher works in order to satisfy his or her life needs. For teachers to perform their teaching responsibility effectively, their needs should be met and the process of meeting these needs should be continuous. This is what may be termed as motivation.

Motivation according to Nkang and Eneh (2008) is any condition which initiates, guides and maintains a response. Makheriee (2011) defined motivation as the process involved in arousing, directing and sustaining behavior. It is a force that energizes and directs behavior and without it, ability alone will not result in achievement. It can also be described as the push behind behavior of certain goals.

Shrestha (2017) stated that Motivation which can be defined as a reason (or reasons) which leads an individual to act in a certain way, could be classified into two which are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic. The Intrinsic motivation is the biologically inherent will, drive or tendency to perform an act. Examples of intrinsic motivation are curiosity, competence, etc. The extrinsic motivation refers to the external factors which makes somebody to behave the way they do. Examples of extrinsic motivation are incentives, rewards promotion, prompt payment of salary, conducive working environment, and increase in salary to mention but few.

The Primary motive of any organization is the realization is the realization of the organizational goals. Therefore there are certain factors which need to be considered in order to attain the goals of any organization. One of the factors is motivation of the employees. Therefore it is important for employers of labour to be fully equipped with all the motivational strategies and skill if the stated organizational objectives would be activated.

Effiong (2013) opined that if employers want their employee to perform effectively they should provide the necessary incentives to their employees (workers). Similarly, for the teachers to be effective, they need to be motivated. According to Henry (2014), motivational strategies to the teachers include: increment in salary, provision of in-service training such as seminar, workshops and conferences, promotion of teachers, immediate payment of salary. He furthered opined that of all these conditions are taken care of, then the teachers will be satisfy with their job and they will be effective in their responsibility.

According to Lawson (2010), the teaching profession previously was accorded with respect, honor and dignity. This enviable profession was a sort of motivation to many teachers. But recently, the government an all its organs neglect teacher and educational sectors.

Ekpo (2012) revealed that teachers are not satisfied with their job due to the poor salary, poor working environment and lot more. Because of this unconducive working condition of teachers, strikes is a common action embarked upon by teachers every year. This has resulted in poor performance on the side of the teachers.

As a result, students are suffering because they are not receiving adequate instruction. Due to this background, the researcher considered it needful to examine the effects of motivational techniques on the teaching of Biology among secondary school teachers.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Teachers are the key players in the process of curriculum implementation and also are the one responsible for the moulding of students to help them excel in examinations and eventually succeed in life. Teachers therefore need motivation to enhance the level of job satisfaction in order to undertake their duty effectively and efficiently.

Teachers are employees like every other professional. They are engaged in their activities for both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational reasons. Their employer, the government or private organizations owe them a duty to fulfill their own side of the bargain to ensure effectiveness of the employees and in this case the teachers. They are entitled to their remunerations, promotions, re-training exercises and other packages meant to encourage them to higher performance. How the presence or absence of the incentives or motivational factors affect the performance of the teachers on their jobs in Itu Local Government of Akwa Ibom state is the main thrust of this study.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to examine the effect of motivational techniques on the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area.

Specially, the study aimed at:

  1. Examine the effect of teachers’ promotion on the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area.
  2. Examine the effect of prompt payment of teachers’ salary on the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area.
  3. Examine the effect of in-service training on the teaching of Biology among teachers in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. To what extent does the regularity of promotion affect the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area?
  2. How does prompt payment of teacher’s salary affect the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area?
  3. What is the effect of in-service training on the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Itu Local Government Area?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of great importance to the teachers, educational stake holders, students and others researchers in the following ways. The need of making teaching profession attractive to the teachers by motivating them through regular payment of salary, promotion, increase in salary and other motivational techniques would be exposed.

The teachers will also be beneficiary because there will be regular payment of salary there will be provision for staff development. The students will also benefit because when teaches are motivated, there will be effective teaching and learning in school. This study will also serve as a reference material to other researchers who will carry out research on similar or the same topic.

1.6 Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited to motivational techniques and the teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Itu L.G.A. The population of the study are all the Biology teachers in secondary schools in the study area. The sub-variables considered are promotion, prompt payment of salary and in-service training to teachers.

1.7   Limitation of the Study

        The following challenges were confronted by the researcher in the course of conducting this study.

  1. Financial Factor: High cost of transportation in visiting the selected schools for this study was a great problem.
  2. Time Factor: The period of time given for the completion of this study was not enough due to so many school activities to carry out.
  3. School Location: The schools visited by the researchers were widely spread, more some schools were located in the rural are. Therefore it was a challenge to get to those schools.

 1.8   Definition of Terms

        The following terms were defined as they are utilized for this study for proper understanding of the work.

  1. Motivation: This refer to the act of encouraging someone to do a particular thing by giving incentive.
  2. Techniques: These refer to the methods or ways of achieving something.
  3. Teaching: The act of transferring knowledge from one person to another.
  4. Biology: This is a course of study which deals with the study of life.
  5. Promotion: This is an advancement in rank or position.
  6. Prompt Payment of Salary: This refer to the act of paying teacher’s salary as at when due.
  7. In – service Training: This is a kind of training offer to teachers who are already in the profession e.g workshop and seminar.