Influence of Child Abuse on Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics in Secondary Schools

Influence of Child Abuse on Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics in Secondary Schools

Abstract

This study aimed at assessing the impact of child abuse on the academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Two research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The review of the related literature was carried out under the following sub-headings: Concept of Child Abuse, child physical abuse and Students’ academic performance, emotional Child abuse and Students’ academic performance, and summary of the literature review.

Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for this study consisted of one thousand two hundred and ten (1,210) SS2 students in all the eight (8) public secondary schools in the study area. Sample size of one hundred and sixty (160) SS2 students were selected from four schools in the study area.

In each of the four schools selected, forty (40) students were drawn using simple random sampling technique. Two instruments were adopted for data collection in this study; one was a questionnaire while the other students’ raw scores. The data collected were analyzed using independent t- test statistical method. The result revealed that child abuse in any form has negative effect on the academic performance of a child in mathematics.

Influence of Child Abuse on Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics in Secondary Schools

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Child abuse has remained a global issue in most countries including Nigeria. It is a age long-long human problem. The united nations conventions (1990) defines a child as a person under the age of 18 years.

Childhood maltreatment and aversive parenting practices in general has the potential to delay the academic progress of students (William, 2012). However education process is an instrument of social, mental and economic development through which right values and attitudes for proper development are inculcated. Child abuse and its consequences, is the unjust treatment given to a child disturbs his development process (Richard, 2015).

According to Akan (2018), in some families, many parents because of many social, political and economic activities tend to neglected their child. In schools such children are not given the basic motivation and encouragement necessary for development of positive attitude towards effective learning.

Teachers in schools, who are expected to play a significant role in the educational life of their learners, more often than not tend to exhibit total lack of interest in their students while some even ridicule and subject them to various forms of maltreatment. The abuse students then exhibit recalalrant and unruly behaviours which consequently deteriorate their academic performance (Ludan, 2016).

Akpan (2016) said that most child abuse occurs in child’s home, with a smaller amount occurring in the organization, schools or communities. The child interacts with. It is a practices whereby children are battered, deprived of some basic needs in the home and at school. The authors further opined that “the child of today’s child will determine the quality of tomorrow’s man.

Child abuse has emerge as one of the serious problems that need the attention of the public. All over the world, there are children working like slaves, they beg in their street, toil under the sun in the field and plantations, serve as house maids, work day and night in shops and factories. Millions of children lose their lives; some are denied the joy of childhood due to the type of abuse they experience at an early age (Amadi, 2014).

Accordingly, Okon and Ekere (2018), maintained that the child is a valuable gift from God and should be cared for. Throughout history, children were considered as property.

Parents had the understanding that they have unrestricted authority to do to a child whatever they deemed necessary, child abuse in some homes, parents-child relationship is a source of distress and trauma which results in a parents maltreating his child physically, sexually, psychologically and neglect by failure to provide him with love, care, attention and other needs.

Influence of Child Abuse on Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics in Secondary Schools

Amadi (2014) emphasized that childhood is expected to be the best time to lay a foundation of balance social and emotional stability for an expected adult. It is during childhood that the ingredients on which the child show grow is expected to be put in place. Child abuse has been recognized as a violation of the rights of the child through the adoption of the convention on the rights of the child by many countries including Nigeria.

This convention recognizes the significance of liberty, quality and nurturance as essential for the preservation of children’s integrity as individuals. Despite all these, there are still inadences of the problem of child abuse in Nigeria. Child abound on the streets hawking their wares, pushing wheel barrow and trucks when they should be in school laying solid foundation for their future.

Some abused children that managed to be in school do not fully devoted to their time to the studies. Some abused child constitute a serious hazard to the society. For instance, abused children have been linked to violent crimes, stealing prostitution and other undesirable behaviours. With such stated crimes that are inimical to peaceful societies, it becomes imperative that urgent steps must betaken to address the issue of child abuse and neglect in our society.

Influence of Child Abuse on Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics in Secondary Schools

1.2 Statement of the Problem

This study is examine by the researcher encounter with dismay to the multitude of school age children roaming the streets, traffic ways during school hours. They hawk goods, wash cars, beg for money etc. These activities are deprivation of the children the right of education. Apart from that, some are sent to hawk on daily basis and warned not to return with their unsold goods. If the child doesn’t finish selling for that day there will be no foods for him or her. Girls then turn to promiscuity and boys will turn to stealing in order to make up the money for their masters and mistress.

It is obvious to see the maltreatment meted to the children from broken homes and parental neglect.

It is obvious as one hears over the media on daily basis several form of child abuse ranging from rape, kidnapping, child trafficking, child battering. Some of them do not have adequate care interms of providing them with basic needs from some are driven into prostitution through street hawking, exposure to danger and harm to hawking, some meet their death on a running car when crossing the road in the process of hawking.

In school, one observes students who aer affected with anxiety, depression and some aggressive destructive and in-appropriate acts or delinquent behaviours. Some students are observed to be truant, not coming to school regularly, sleeping during lessons while some seek in-appropriate affection from others. It is on the light of these, that the study attempts to unravel the causes of child abuse and how it influence the academic performance of the child.

Influence of Child Abuse on Academic Performance of Students in Mathematics in Secondary Schools

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of child abuse on academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

  1. Examiner the effect of physical child abuse on the academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary school in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.
  2. Examine the effect of emotional child abuse on the academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

1.4 Research Questions

In order to guide the study, a research questions was formulated thus:

  1. How does physical child abuse affects the academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary schools in Mkapt Enin Local Government Area.
  2. To what extent does emotional child abuse affects the academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

These hypothesis were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant effect of physical child abuse on the academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.
  2. There is no significant effect of emotional child abuse on the academic performance of students in mathematics in secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will provide parents and school administrators with an insight into how much damage child abuse and especially hawking after before and after school can have on the academic development of students in general.

This study is significant as the findings will be beneficial to parents, guidance, teachers, schools heads and all other stake holders in the educational sector as they will be better enlighted on the problem associated with child abuse.

Such knowledge may curtail any further action of exploiting the child especially been used as object of raising family economy. Hawking no doubt expose the child to many social vices this the fact that the study attempts to create a model for proper upbringing of the child in the society makes it justifiable.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

The factors that limited the scope of this study were time-frame for the study, financial constraints and the researcher’s academic work.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to child abuse and academic performance of students in mathematics in senior secondary schools in Mkapt Enin Local Government Area. The analysis was on senior secondary two mathematics students in the area.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

The following terms were defined for better understanding of this study:

  1. Child: Refers to a person whose age is below eighteen years.
  2. Child Abuse: This refers to a child who suffers physical, mental or emotional acts from families, guardians, peers, institutions by withdrawal of basic needs from them.
  3. Physical abuse: Physical abuse happens when a child has been hurt or injured, which is not an accident.
  4. Emotional abuse: Emotional abuse happens when a child is treated in a way that negatively impacts their social, emotional or intellectual development.

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