The Impact of Teachers’ Classroom Management Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Secondary Schools

The Impact of Teachers’ Classroom Management Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Secondary Schools

Abstract

The study was designed to examine classroom management techniques and students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A survey research design was adopted for the study.

A population of the study consisted of all students who offered Economics in the study area amounted to One thousand, six hundred and seventy six (1,676) students in the study area. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two hundred (200) students from five (5) public secondary schools in the study area.

Structure questionnaire titled “Classroom Management Technique and Students Academic Performance Questionnaire (CMTSAPQ)” was used as the instrument for data collection. The data collected from the study were subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) to determine the relationship between the variables. 

The Impact of Teachers’ Classroom Management Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Secondary Schools

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The classroom is that space bounded by the wall and roof which a teacher houses his pupils/students for the purpose of giving instruction to such pupils /students. In other words, it is a shelter for both teachers and learners so as to engage in educative activities (Adeyemo, 2012).

Classroom management is the term used by teachers to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite disruptive behavior by students which has been highlighted across numerous research studies as a major variable that affects students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools (Marzono, 2014). The most obvious reason for this assertion is that, effective classroom management sets the stage for teaching and learning. It sets a tone in the classroom that captures students’ attention – as a necessity for effective teaching and learning (Marzono, 2014).

Classroom management is the heart of teaching and learning in school setting. A well-managed classroom can provide an exciting and dynamic experience for everyone involved (Adeyemo, 2012).

Furthermore, according to Walter (2015), classroom management differs from one teacher to another because of the teacher’s personality, teaching style, preparedness, and number of students in the classroom.

Classroom management is a prerequisite for achieving instructional objectives and safeguarding the well being of students for whom the teaching and learning activities are centered (Ogunu, 2016). Furthermore, classroom management entails planning, supervising, controlling and coordinating the activities of pupils in teaching –learning process. According to Grieser (2007), successful classroom management enhances students questioning and exploration only if the learning environment is conducive. Classroom management techniques as used in this study, refers to tactics adopted by teachers to ensure decorum in the classroom and thus create a healthy and conducive atmosphere for learning.

Umoren (2017), posited that the concept of classroom management is broader than the notion of student control and discipline, it includes all the things teachers must do in the classroom to foster students’ academic involvement and cooperation in classroom activities to create conducive learning environment.

Morse (2012), posited that classroom management involves curtailing learner’s disruptive behaviors such as fighting and noise making, close observation, arrangement of classroom learning materials, and response to students who suffer from poor sight, poor reading, poor writing, poor spelling, shame, dullness, hyperactivity and poor study habits. Hence, when classroom management is viewed in a more wider and holistic sense, incorporating every element of the classroom from lesson delivery to classroom environment becomes important (Nicholas, 2013).

According to Nicholas (2013), this includes creating organized and orderly classroom, establishing expectations, inducing students’ cooperation in learning tasks, and dealing with the procedural demands of the classroom. This view of classroom management contrasts to a more narrow view of classroom management as it deals with just discipline and control.

The Impact of Teachers’ Classroom Management Techniques and Students Academic Performance in Economics in Secondary Schools

Bassey (2012), postulated that the wider view of classroom management shows increased engagement, reduction in inappropriate and disruptive behaviors, promotion of student responsibility for academic work, and improved academic performance of students. In effect, discipline, control and the consequences become authoritative or punitive approaches to classroom management. These have become much smaller part of the term classroom management. Thus, classroom management denotes much more than any of these words (Charlie, 2006).

Williams (2008), says that classroom management involves how the teacher works, how the class works, how the teacher and students work together and how teaching and learning takes place. An analyses of the past 50 years of classroom management research identified classroom management as the most important factor, even above students’ aptitude, affecting students’ learning and academic performance (Wang, 2009).

Classroom management is a skill that can be acquired like any other profession. It is a skill that must be practiced to achieve proficiency. Classroom management thus requires specific skills such as planning organizing, as well as an aptitude for team work. It requires a great deal of commitment, initiatives, teachers’ willingness to adjust, creative thinking and actions (Abel, 2011).

Poorly managed classrooms are usually characterized by disruptive behaviors such as sleeping, late coming, noise making, miscopying of notes, eating, calling of nicknames, verbal or physical threat to fellow students or the teacher (Ekere, 2006). It is from the above issues that prompt the researchers to examine the relationship that exist between classroom management techniques and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Classroom management skills in the public schools has posed serious problems to students’ academic performance over decades. This trend has been on the increase on a daily basis. Its prevalence has attracted the concern of the teachers, parents, the guidance counselors and many researchers.

Classroom teachers seem to exhaust discipline, supervision and classroom control in attempt to establish effective classroom management without producing desire results. Many teachers had deployed corporal punishment as a means of discipline in classroom, yet there are prevalence of disruptive behavior in classrooms. A lot of teachers waste time and energy in intensive classroom supervision so that the classroom climate could be conducive for lessons.

It was on this note that this study was carried out to examine how classroom management techniques influence students’ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area.

1.3   Purpose of the study

The main purpose of the study was to investigate classroom management techniques and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  • Examine the relationship between classroom supervision and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim L.G.A.
  • Ascertain the relationship between classroom control and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim L.G.A.
  • Determine the relationship between classroom motivation and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim L.G.A.

1.4   Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  • How does classroom supervision relates to students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim L.G.A.
  • To what extent does classroom control relates to students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim L.G.A.
  • In what way does classroom motivation relate to students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim L.G.A.

1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  • There is no significant relationship between classroom supervision and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools
  • There is no significant relationship between classroom control and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools
  • There is no significant relationship between classroom motivation and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools.

1.6   Significant of the Study

This study will be significant as it will yield data that will help a number of individuals and educational stakeholders such as Ministry of Education, researchers and parent Teachers Association (PTA) members to ascertain the extent to which effective classroom management influence students academic performance in secondary schools in Economics.

The findings provided in this study will help teachers in accessing the influence of their classroom management on students’ academic performance. Likewise, Ministry of education and the curriculum planners will use the results of this study to guide them in imbibing classroom management skills in teachers so as to improve students’ academic performance in Economics.

The study is equally significant to Parent Teachers Association members in that they will understand how disruptive behavior can hamper students academic performance. It will create awareness among teachers and parents on the need to always establish a conducive learning environment for improvement of students academic performance in Economics. 

1.7   Limitations of the study

In the course of conducting the study, the following were some of the challenges encountered:

  • Financial Constraint: The researcher relied solely on the paltry financial contribution of this parent which was hardly sufficient to cater for a wider research project like this.
  • Limited Time: The time frame of one semester allotted by the college authority to complete and submit the research was not sufficient to cover a wider area on the topic. Therefore the report of the research could not be generalized to more local government areas.

1.8   Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to Classroom management techniques and students academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Essien Udim Local Government Area. Out of the Nine (9) public secondary schools located in the study area, only five (5) were considered as sample schools from SS2 class.

1.9   Definition of Terms

The following terms were contextually defined so that any researcher of this report can easily do so without consulting a dictionary for meaning of these words.

  • Classroom: The classroom is that space bounded by the wall and roof which a teacher houses his pupils/students for the purpose of giving instruction to such pupils /students.
  • Classroom Management: This is define as a way of creating, organized and orderly classroom, establishing expectations, including students’ cooperation in learning tasks, and dealing with the procedural demands of the classroom.
  • Economics: Is the study of scarcity; the study of how people use resources and respond to incentives, or the study of decision-making. It often involves topics like wealth and finance, but its not all about money.
  • Classroom discipline: The practice of training students to obey rules or a code of behavior, using punishment to correct disobedience act in the classroom.
  • Classroom control: These are activities/techniques that teacher can use to maintain discipline in the classroom during teaching-learning process.
  • Academic performance: Academic performance is the outcome of education. It is the extent to which a student has achieves its educational goals by text and examination.
  • Supervision: Classroom supervision is a way of advising, guiding, refreshing, encouraging, stimulating, improving, and over-seeing certain activities carry out by the students in the classroom with the hope of seeking their co-operation to enable the to improve in their academic performance.     
  • Technique: is a way of carrying out a particular task, especially the execution or performance of an artistic work or a scientific procedure.
  • Learning Environment: Is the surrounding that is conducive for learning for the students to partake effectively.
  • Teachers: A teacher is a person who helps others to acquire knowledge, competences or values in the classroom for the benefit of the learners.
  • Students: is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution in secondary schools.
  • Secondary school: secondary school is an institution of learning that provides education to the students.
  • Classroom motivation: This is define as the desire and incentive of an individual to engage in a specific activity especially in the classroom.

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